An extended paper of He et al (2009)

It models a soft-state system, i.e. some state signal with an expiry timer to be installed on routers. Signal is from a source to destination and passing through a number of intermediate routers. Each router have to remember the state. Two refresh approach is described: End-to-end and Hop-by-hop. In end-to-end, only the source can send refresh and all routers pass on the refresh request. In hop-by-hop, each router remember the (independent) expiry time and send refresh on their own. Markov chain models are developed for the E2E and HbH approaches and a formula is provided for (1) the probability of inconsistency, i.e. when a router has a different understanding to the state than the source node; and (2) the message rate, i.e. the number of state signaling message flowing on the network per unit time.

Bibliographic data

   title = "End-to-End Versus Hop-by-Hop Soft State Refresh for Multi-hop Signaling Systems",
   author = "Jianhua He and Xiaoming Fu and Zuoyin Tang",
   booktitle = "Proc ICNP",
   year = "2009",