The Google paper on MapReduce.

Map and Reduce are two functional operations modeled after Lisp. It is an abstracted model for computation. Map operation converts an input key/value pair into intermediate key/value pair. Reduce operation combines all intermediate output of the same key into final value. The input key/value are in the different domain than the output key/value. But the intermediate key/value domain are the same as the output.

The architecture is built from commodity PC with Ethernet switch. Users submit jobs to a scheduling system. The execution is the following:

  • User send job to the MapReduce library
  • The library, partitions job into \(M\) splits (typically 16-64MB per split)
  • The program is sent to all workers, and one copy to the master
  • The master assigns map role or reduce role to each worker
  • The “map” workers read input split, filter through the Map function, and buffer the output
  • The buffered output is write to disk periodically, then pass the disk location to the master
  • Master notifies each of the \(R\) “reduce” workers to read from the disk, then the intermediate data is sorted by the key to aggregate the values of the same key. Afterward, the key/value pairs are filtered through the Reduce function
  • When all MapReduce job are done, master notifies user about the completion.

The master node holds status information about nodes and jobs. Each map/reduce task has a corresponding state (idle, in-progress, completed) and the responsible worker node.

Fault tolerance is maintained by having the master ping workers periodically to learn their healthiness. Lost data due to failure is replaced by re-executing jobs.

There are some tuning for the performance: Input is splited to small pieces. Usually the size \(M\) and \(R\) are much larger than the worker machines. Moreover, when the MapReduce job near completion, the master schedules multiple backup executions for the remaining in-progress tasks. When any one of them completes, the task completes. This is to avoid stragglers, which a slow node delays the completion of the whole job. Furthermore, a combiner, which is a local reduce operation can be supplied to pre-process the intermediate output of the “map” worker before sending to the “reduce” worker over the network.

Bibliographic data

   title = "MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters",
   author = "Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat",
   howpublished = "Proc. OSDI'04",
   booktitle = "Proceedings of 6th Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI'04)",
   pages = "137--149",
   year = "2004",