List of Dwarfs (7 dwarfs, later expanded into 13 motifs):

• Dense Linear Algebra
• Sparse Linear Algebra
• Spectral Methods
• N-Body Methods
• Structured Grids
• Unstructured Grids
• MapReduce
• Combinational Logic
• Graph Traversal
• Dynamic Programming
• Backtrack and Branch-and-Bound
• Graphical Models
• Finite State Machines

The above are the parallel motifs (Source and more detail: Dwarf Mine, from Berkeley), i.e. a collection of algorithm families that are particularly important in parallel programming. The reason for having these motifs is because doing parallel programming well is hard: Hard to code, hard to understand, hard to analyze, hard to debug, and hard to supply input data (because of the parallelism).

Here gives one example for each of the 13 motifs:

• Dense Matrix Algebra: Matrix Multiply
• Sparse Matrix Algebra: Matrix Vector Multiply
• Spectral Methods: 2D FFT
• N-Body Methods
• Structured Grid: Laplace’s equation with Dirichlet’s conditions on the square
• Unstructured Grid: 2D Iterative Triangular Grid
• MapReduce: well, MapReduce
• Combinational Logic: Popcount on a binary string
• Graph Traversal: Depth First Search
• Dynamic Programming: 0/1 Knapsack Problem
• Backtrack and Branch-and-Bound: Traveling Salesman problem
• Graphical Models: Viterbi Algorithm for Hidden Markov Models
• Finite State Machines: Pattern Matching on Strings